In Vitro Fertilization, popularly known as IVF is a process where the eggs are combined with the sperm in vitro. IVF is normally preferred when the other fertility treatments are not working. The success rate of IVF is high and the success rates of IVF are similar to that of normal and healthy fertility. Lets us read about different steps in IVF Cycle.

Step 1: Control Ovarian Hyperstimulation 

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is a common procedure used for unexplained fertility. For women who are experiencing anovulation, this procedure induces ovulation. It aids in the development of mature follicles and eggs and boosts pregnancy rates by identifying suitable infertility procedures. This procedure gets the sperm and eggs together and finds out what is the root cause of infertility but does not provide any solution or treatment to cure infertility.

However, this treatment will not be effective where the sperm count of men is low or where the age of the woman is over 41. Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation is used early on in the menstrual cycle. After a baseline ultrasound and blood test are made, the medication is started and monitored at regular intervals to notice the changes in the body and identify the cause of infertility. After monitoring the results, when the follicles are mature, an HCG trigger shot is given and either sex or insemination is timed almost 36 hours after the shot.   

IVF Cycle steps

Step 2: Egg Retrieval

Egg retrieval commences before the ovulation kicks in and during the egg retrieval process the patient is sedated. Follicles are identified by the insertion of an ultrasound probe in your vagina and a thin needle is inserted in the ultrasound guide which thereby extracts eggs from the follicles. A transvaginal ultrasound is initially used to extract eggs and in the case where this doesn’t work, abdominal ultrasound is used to guide the needle and retrieve eggs. The needle inserted in the ultrasound is connected to a suction device and ensures in 15-20 minutes several eggs can be extracted. Once the eggs are extracted, you will feel a slight pressure in the vaginal area where the needle was inserted and you might feel fullness. Out of all the eggs retrieved, the mature eggs are placed in incubation and these healthy eggs are mixed with the sperm to create embryos. 

Step 3: Fertilization and embryo culture 

The maturity and quality of the retrieved eggs are tested in the laboratory. The mature eggs are placed in an IVF storage till they are transferred to the incubator to be mixed with sperm and the sperm are incubated with the oocytes for almost 15-17 hours after the insemination process. Single sperm is inserted in each of the matured embryos to test out the fertilization process. The fertilized egg will become a 2-4 cell embryo after the egg is retrieved on Day 2 and 6-10 cells on Day 3. On Day 4 the embryo cells contact and turn into a morula. The embryo is filled with a fluid cavity on Day 5 when the fetal tissues begin to separate. 

Step 4: Embryo Quality 

In Vitro fertilization assesses the quality of embryos and within 72 hours from retrieval, the range of embryo cells turns into 7-10 cells. After the embryos are analyzed and graded, for some women, the embryos get transferred to their uterus on Day 3. On Day 3, the cells in the embryos start to divide and their size does not differ. This stage is referred to as the cleavage stage. During the cleavage stage, embryologists analyze the structure of the embryo, the actress popularly known as morphology. Both the number of embryos and the structure of embryos are analyzed during Day 3. The size of the nucleus is being tested by embryologists during this day. The compaction, cytoplasmic pitting, and vacuoles are examined in the Day 3 embryo or during the cleavage stage. 

But instead of Day 3, for some Embryo transfer takes place on Day 5 when the embryo develops into a blastocyst and cells start to form an inner cell mass. The inner cell mass thereafter turns into a fetus. When one set of cells turns into an inner cell mass, the other set turns into trophectoderm epithelium. This TE is required to build tissues of your body that are required for pregnancy. 

Step 5: Embryo Transfer 

The healthiest-looking embryos are screened and transferred through preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) or Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS). If the embryos get cryopreserved during this process, then the embryo transfer is delayed and postponed to the next cycle. No anesthesia is required for the transfer of embryos and the embryo is transferred via a thin tube or a catheter, which is passed through the cervix. No pain is involved during this process except for minor cramping. Once the embryos are transferred, the next two weeks following that will be a waiting period for pregnancy to happen. Usually, a pregnancy test is ordered within 12 days of embryo transfer, and depending on the result of the pregnancy further steps are taken by the medical expert.



When a woman, who has previously given birth is unable to conceive again, infertility is termed Secondary infertility. The first pregnancy in such cases is not backed up by any fertility treatments. Normally, couples can conceive but lack the ability to carry throughout pregnancy. In general, these pregnancies are diagnosed only after a minimum of 6 months to one year. Depending on the underlying cause of infertility, several treatment options have emerged in the medical field to treat secondary infertility. Either partner can be responsible for secondary infertility and proper diagnosis is required to treat underlying infertility.                      

Causes of Secondary Infertility 

The causes of secondary infertility result in both men and women.

Causes in women

Quality / Quantity deficiency of eggs: 

The number of eggs present at the time of birth is limited in a woman and these eggs cannot be created post-birth. The eggs that are created post-birth start declining as the woman ages and the remaining eggs available in the ovaries are highly susceptible to chromosomal problems. Genetic conditions play an active role in affecting the quality of the eggs and cases like radiation, prior surgery, etc diminish the quality of the eggs. 

Blockage of fallopian tubes :

The eggs are carried from the ovaries to the uterus via the fallopian tubes and these tubes have a high potential to get pelvic infections, making them prone to chlamydia and gonorrhea. 

Uterus issues :

Any issues in the uterus including Scarring can lead to secondary infertility in women. Specific kinds of Endometriosis, where the tissues start to grow in the ovaries and bowel surfaces instead of the uterus, can lead to secondary infertility. 

Others :

Breastfeeding for a longer duration leads to secondary infertility in some women as the body stops ovulating and releasing eggs. Weight gain and consumption of medications lead to ovary dysfunction and affect fertility. If a woman has a menstrual cycle that is more normal than average and the male hormones exceed the presence of female hormones, it potentially leads to secondary infertility as the ovaries fail to release eggs regularly. 

Causes of secondary infertility in men

Male infertility has become as common as female infertility and almost one-third of secondary infertility cases originate via male infertility. Male infertility occurs as a result of medical conditions, overheated testicles, ejaculation disorders, hormonal imbalances, and so on.

Poor semen quality:

Semen carries the sperm and the quality of semen starts declining as one age and this leads to Secondary infertility. 

Testicular varicocele :

When the veins surrounding the scrotum are enlarged the skin around the testicles starts to sack and this leads to low sperm production and causes infertility in men. 

Reduction of testosterone levels :

Sperm production is dependent on testosterone levels and these start declining due to multiple factors including aging, genital infections, diabetes, stroke, and so on thereby causing infertility. Testosterone levels can be boosted by reducing stress levels and losing excess pounds.             

Late-onset hypogonadism :

Late-onset hypogonadism reduces male hormone secretion and this leads to infertility. 

Prostate removal:

Prostate removal due to cancer or other medical conditions can affect the flow of sperm leading to male infertility.                                                   

Weight gain:

For every 20 pounds a man gains, the chances of infertility increase by 10% and hence having a weight check is essential.                                                   


Mumps normally occurs post-puberty and affects sperm production through inflammation of the testicles. 

Treatments for secondary infertility 

Treatments for women:

  • Intake of medicines that helps in inducing ovulation with an ovulatory disorder. These medicines include Letrozole, Clomid, and so on. Clomid is a common oral medication that induces hormonal changes and boosts the production of eggs in women who face ovulation problems.
  • Repairing all uterine-related issues via surgery including repairing scar tissue, fibroids in the uterus, and so on. 
  • Undergoing IVF where the ovaries are stimulated through daily injections and IVF is a common treatment procedure for infertility. 
  • Placing sperm in the woman’s uterus surgically to boost the chances of fertilization, is a procedure commonly known as Intrauterine insemination. 

Treatments for men:

  • Intake of antioxidants and other anti-aging supplements that boosts fertility in men. Semen quality can also be improved through drug treatment in men. 
  • Indulging in lifestyle changes including quitting smoking, drinking, and usage of any drugs will boost the chances of fertility in men. 
  • Undergoing surgery to repair the testicular varicocele. 
  • Vasectomy reversal: In some cases, where men have undergone vasectomy early on in their lives and additional blockages are found in their epididymis due to infection or injury, undergoing Vasoepididymostomy will help with treating infertility. 


Secondary infertility is not impossible to treat. If the root cause of the infertility is identified and the appropriate treatments are undertaken at regular intervals and both men and women undergo the necessary lifestyle changes, the chances of overcoming secondary infertility are considerably high.

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Abortion can either be a planned termination of pregnancy or a pregnancy that ends with an unplanned miscarriage. Most often abortion only refers to induced abortion. Can abortion cause infertility? The question of whether an induced abortion will be a threat to future fertility and pregnancy has been pondered upon by many people. Generally, having an abortion will not rob you of the chance to become pregnant again. Although abortion may cause a few side effects in your body at times, becoming infertile is not one of them.

Abortion And The Increased Risk Of A Future Miscarriage:

The risk of future miscarriage post-abortion depends highly on the method of abortion. If a woman undergoes a surgical abortion by D&C, where the uterine contents are suctioned, and suffers any uterine damage thereafter or has any indication of hemorrhage, the risk of subsequent fertility issues is higher. 

abortion cause infertility

If instead of surgical intervention, the woman undergoes a medical termination, the risk of future fertility issues is very minimal. In 85% of the cases, no adverse effect is expected even for first-time mothers. 

Complications To Keep In Mind

A few common complications associated with Abortion are the complication of anesthesia, Uterine Perforation, Bowel and bladder injury, Cervical Shock, a failed abortion, and so on. 

Pelvic infections: The risk of bacteria and other germs entering your vagina or cervix and causing an infection is very high during an abortion. 

Incomplete abortion: This is one of the common complications associated with abortion.  When the fetal parts or other pregnancy parts are not entirely emptied from your uterus it leads to an incomplete abortion and is detrimental to your health. 

Blood clots: Some women experience blood clots in their uterus post-abortion and some might even hemorrhage. When heavy bleeding is involved suction or in rare cases surgery has to be involved. 

Torn cervix: To pass the medical instruments into the uterus, the uterus has to be stretched, and often this causes a tear in the cervix. 

Anesthesia does not suit everyone and many women face complications with abortion owing to this. 

Chances For Fertility After Abortion

Your body will start ovulating two weeks post-abortion and hence you can become pregnant again before your next period itself. Unless otherwise, your medical expert has given specific instructions as to not conceive shortly, there is no reason to delay conceiving. 

No additional safety efforts are required to become pregnant post-abortion. Unless otherwise medical complications are involved, no additional precautionary measures are required for your fertility post-abortion. If your body gets adversely affected during the abortion procedures you have to follow up with treatments to become fertile again. After the termination of pregnancy, infertility can be cured in many cases. These statements should be undergone 6 months post the date of abortion to give your body sufficient time to recover naturally. Your medical expert will prescribe you several vitamins and hormone replacement medications and this will help your body to become fertile. Symptoms of infertility after abortion :

If your body gets infected during an abortion, the chances of infertility become significantly higher. Hence it is essential to look out for the symptoms of infection post-abortion. The common symptoms include severe pain in your tummy, lower back, and pelvis. Some might experience fever and a continuous high body temperature. One of the most common symptoms is an unusually smelly vaginal discharge. Some women might also experience frequent bleeding, especially post sex and some might even bleed between their periods. 

Does The Abortion Pill Affect Fertility?

Terminating a pregnancy via a pill is normally referred to as medical abortion. The abortion pill does not have a direct link to infertility. The FDA has certified that abortion pills are not harmful to future fertility. But certain medical clinics have stated that although abortion pills do not cause infertility, they do have side effects. For instance, the Mayo Clinic has stated that abortion pills might lead to the risk of premature h or low birth weight for future pregnancies. There are many misconceptions as to abortion pills causing breast cancer, but in reality, it is not the case.

For over 20 years, abortion pills have been used by U.S. Residents. Although some might experience an allergic reaction to the pills, it does not lead to infertility. The pills are safe and effective and do not have any long-term impacts. Abortion pills do not cause infant death or future miss carriages and are one of the safest modes of abortion, especially in the early days. 

How To Decide When To Conceive Again?

Unless otherwise, your medical experts require you to postpone your pregnancy, you can conceive immediately post-abortion without any difficulty or side effects. Your fertility will return almost immediately after abortion and an egg can be released within 5 days after your treatment. This will help you to become pregnant again even before your next period starts.

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Technology is advancing day by day and it is opening unending possibilities for everyone to equalize life. Years ago, it was impossible for a female couple to have their own family with biologically related offspring. Here medical science is advanced to make it possible. Reciprocal IVF, Intrauterine insemination (IUI), egg donation, and surrogacy are a few of them. Reciprocal IVF is getting more popular as it is convenient for both partners. The fetus can be biologically related to both parents even though both of them are females. This modern fertility option is for two people with ovaries and uteruses if they desire a baby.

What Is Reciprocal IVF?

Reciprocal IVF is a modern method of fertility that provides both female partners an opportunity to take part in their own role in the biological development of the baby. It is also known as Co-IVF and is considered to be the most acceptable method for reproduction in a female couple. Here one of the partners can contribute eggs from the ovaries and the other one can be the child bearer. During the procedure, the couple has to receive healthy sperm from a donor and complete the fertilization procedure. The embryo will be transferred to the second partner’s uterus and will give her an opportunity to become pregnant and give birth to the baby.

What is Reciprocal IVF? A Complete Guide for Lesbian Couples!

Are Both Parents Biologically Related To The Baby?

Both parents are biologically related to the baby as they both are biologically involved in the process of creating a child. One of the couples who act as a father can contribute an egg and the other one can receive the fertilized egg for pregnancy. The second person will be giving birth to the baby and both of them are biologically bonded to the baby.

How To Decide On The Egg Donor And Gestational Carrier?

If both partners are healthy without any fertility issues, any one of them can be the egg donor and the other person’s carrier. The carrier will be passing through the gestational process. The steps involved are almost similar to a normal IVF. The only thing is the involvement in the primary stage includes two women. They can even reverse their roles when they opt for a second child. While choosing the role of a partner in the procedure, it is very important to consider the partner’s age. Women under 35 can have healthier eggs. It is also suggested to get your doctor’s opinion here as everything depends on the individual case.

Step Of Reciprocal IVF!

The partners should decide on the egg donor and gestational carrier to begin with and approach a reproductive endocrinologist who can help them. The physician may suggest a panel of blood tests and ultrasound tests of the egg donor as part of reviewing the medical condition. She will also be given fertility medications to produce healthy or multiple eggs. The physician will also examine the health conditions of the gestational carrier before transferring the embryo. The childbearing partner will be given hormone medicines to make her body prepared for pregnancy.

Then there should be a sperm donor too. It is advised to choose a sperm donor from a sperm bank to avoid legal problems. Then the egg donor has to undergo the ovarian stimulation process, which is the first step of IVF. By ovarian stimulation, the person will be able to produce a healthy egg that is fit for fertilization. Once the egg is collected and fertilized with the sperm in the IVF lab, the fertilized egg or embryo will be transferred to the gestational carrier body. Doctors will be monitoring the career’s hormonal level while doing the process.

Cost And Insurance Coverage

IVF is a complicated and costly fertility method. It cost around $10,000 to $12,000. Reciprocal IVF is a bit more costly. It depends on the clinic. The average cost of Reciprocal IVF can be around $ 20,000. The cost of the donor sperm, medication for both partners, and clinical expenses are the factors that add to the expenditure. ICSI, a process that helps in speeding up sperm mobility costs more than $1000 and it is another reason for the expenses. And also, there is no insurance coverage for reciprocal IVF. Partners have to afford all the expenses at their own risk. It is not available even though some companies are offering it. A few blood tests and sitting with your doctor can be covered by your insurance.

The Legal Side

It is very important to know the legal side of reciprocal IVF if you are opting for it. Although both partners are biologically related to the baby, there can be complications in claiming parenthood. The partner who has gone through the process of gestation will have more acceptance as per the law. The egg donor has to opt for the adoption process to claim the right of the parents. The sperm donor can also come and claim parenthood. It is important to complete all the legal procedures before receiving sperm.


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In vitro fertilization or IVF is considered to be the most effective option in fertility treatment. IVF method has given hope and fulfilled the ambition of many people who wanted to have their own progeny. As with any other method of treatment, IVF will also cause side effects that are short-term and Fatigue is one among them. Most of the women who are undergoing the IVF method face the same. IVF is not a simple procedure. It takes many tests for successful completion. Mature eggs are collected from ovaries and fertilized using sperm outside the body. The fertilized eggs will be transferred to a uterus. It takes a minimum of three weeks to complete the procedure.

Why Does Fatigue Occur During IVF?

Fatigue is a common symptom of a successful pregnancy. It is common to face fatigue during pregnancy as a sign of changes occurring in the body. Hormonal imbalance is considered to be the main reason for fatigue in IVF. As part of the treatment, progesterone levels in women’s bodies can be increased. Medications will be provided to increase progesterone levels to support the health of the fertilized embryo. Drugs that are consumed as part of the treatment may also cause fatigue. Camping, breast tenderness, hot flashes, headaches, anxiety, and mood swings are also very common during the period. Fatigue can also consider as the body’s method to respond to the embryo which is transferred to the female body or uterus.  

Does IVF Cause Fatigue

Tips To Manage

It is a temporary discomfort. It will never last long. Having that feeling with full of expectation and hope will provide you with a positive mindset and help you stay away from fatigue. Fatigue in IVF is caused by increased progesterone levels and fertility drugs. To dilute the effects and save you from fatigue, it is highly recommended to drink plenty of water. It will improve blood circulation though out the body and help you to decrease tiredness and fatigue. 

Stages Of IVF That Cause Fatigue

Women may experience fatigue throughout the process of IVF but are more pronounced during some particular stages. Fatigue can be severe in the beginning days as the body will take time to get used to the medicines. It is mainly due to the drastic changes that happened to the hormone cycle of women. There are three stages in which fatigue is severe during IVF. 

  • Ovulation and egg release: Women may face fatigue as they have during their periods in the beginning days of the treatment plans. The treatment begins with ovarian stimulation, in which the body is getting ready to produce healthy eggs. Doctors will prescribe drugs during the [period which will cause an imbalance in the hormone level. The medications will stimulate ovaries and create a suitable atmosphere to produce mature eggs. 
  • Transfer the embryo: The embryo which is fertilized in the laboratory will be transferred to the uterus and will be implanted on the uterus wall. Medications will be given to thicken the uterus wall for easy implanting of the embryo. Women will also face fatigue while the body accepts the embryo as the art of it. 
  • Early weeks of pregnancy: After the embryo transfer the women will be started to have pregnancy fatigue which is common. The crucial period of pregnancy fatigue is a few weeks after the embryo transfer. It may last up to 3 to 4 months.

Helpful Fatigue Management Tools

Fatigue in IVF can be troublesome and difficult to manage as the causes like hormonal imbalance and effects of fertility drugs are a bit severe. Anyhow, the mom-to-be should have the patience to overcome the stage with confidence, mindfulness, hope, and peace of mind. See that you are in a process that will end in extreme happiness. Here are a few steps or tips that can be followed to reduce fatigue due to IVF and pregnancy. Do not hesitate to discuss your difficulties with your fertility center as they can help you to an extent. 

  • Ensure quality sleep: Quality sleep can prevent fatigue to an extent. It is also advised to take naps while you feel so. 
  • Be happy:  Finding quality time for doing hands-on things and finding yourself f engaged throughout the day can keep you happy and stress-free. It will restrict you from developing anxiety and stress. 
  • Hope for the best: Always realize that you are going to be blessed with a baby that you dreamt of for years or months and know that the fatigue and other difficulties that you are facing now are all temporary. 
  • Meditation for the soul: You are nourishing your body with enough medications, food, and water. It is equally important to nourish your mind with meditation to stay away from fatigue.
  • Keep yourself active: Light exercises can relax you. You can get an expert’s opinion regarding the intensity of the exercise that is allowed during IVF and pregnancy. 
  • Healthy diet: It is very important to follow a healthy diet that supplements all the essential nutrients for the well-being of the mother and baby during pregnancy. See that you are not forgetting to eat well. Ensure that you are consuming veggies and fruits raw. 

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We all know that it is very important for women to take folic acid while considering pregnancy. Should men consume the same? Is folic acid relevant for male fertility? Let us see. Folic acid is Vitamin B which is an essential nutrient. It is very important for the human body as it helps make healthy cells. Every men and women have to consume 400mcgs of folic acid every day for healthy well-being. It becomes highly relevant while thinking about pregnancy. Parenthood starts when you started thinking about having a baby. Only a healthy couple gives birth to a healthy child. Supplementing folic acid helps in male fertility and female fertility.

Folic Acid Benefits For Men 

Being an essential nutrient that makes and repairs DNA, helps in cell division and cell growth wherever it is needed and contributes to the production of red blood cells, the male body cannot survive without folic acid. A deficiency of folic acid is repeated commonly in males. Folic acid is also crucial for men’s sexual health as well as fertility. Along with boosting sperm count, folic acid plays a vital role in improving sperm health too. Studies also prove that a deficiency of folic acid may lead to erectile dysfunction

Folic Acid Supplementation- Significance in Male and Female Fertility

Folic Acid and Male Fertility

Sperm production is an unending process in the male body. It is scientifically proven that the human body produces 1,500 new sperm every single second. Folic acid is an essential nutrient for cell division and DNA synthesis. Even though folic acid deficiency is not very common, a dad-to-be is also advised to supplement folic acid as it improves sperm health and helps the fertilization process happen. It will also contribute to the functioning of the brain and spinal cord of the fetus. The mobility of the sperm determines pregnancy and only a healthy sperm can have suitable mobility for pregnancy. 

Supplementation and Sperm Count

Sperm count is a topic of discussion when it comes to pregnancy as it is crucial for pregnancy. According to health experts, semen produced in a single ejaculation must have at least 15 million sperm per milliliter. Variations in sperm count may affect pregnancy as they can be fertilized as expected. Folic acid experiments conducted in men with subfertility were successful and it is believed that supplementing folic acid can increase sperm count. Sperm health includes shape, count per milliliter, and mobility of sperm. Supplementing folic acid, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, selenium, and lycopene is considered to be beneficial for sperm health. 

Folic Acid and Female Fertility 

A mom-to-be should supplement folic acid as it is an essential nutrient that is crucial for fertilization, health, and growth of the fetus. Young women are supposed to consume 400 micrograms of folic acid daily to prevent deficiency. Women should consume folic acid supplements at least 3 three months before pregnancy to give birth to healthy babies. Folic acid helps in the development of the neural tube, which will turn into the brain and spinal cord. If the mother is deficient in folic acid during the early weeks of pregnancy, the child may have problems with brain and spine development.

It may result in serious neural tubes defects such as anencephaly and spina bifida. In anencephaly, the brain and skull of the baby are not developed completely and it may cause premature death of the newborn. Spina bifida cause severe physical disabilities as the spinal cord is completely developed. Doctors usually suggest folic acid to women who are struggling to get pregnant as it is crucial for female fertility. Folic acid can also prevent miscarriage and inevitable abortions. Folic acid is also recommended for those who are undergoing IVF as it amends the homocysteine pathway. 

Foods Rich in Folic Acid

There are science-based guidelines for consuming folic acid by health experts. The human body cannot make Vitamin B9 or folic acid. Being an essential nutrient that contributes to DNA synthesis and cell multiplication, it is necessary for everyone to consume enough folic acid-rich food items or take supplement pills. A well-balanced diet is the best way to follow. Spinach, asparagus, pumpkin, oysters, carrot, okra, broccoli, beef liver, black-eyed peas, and avocados are rich in folic acids. Fortified foods like bread, cereals, corn flour, pasta, rice, and other grain-based foods can also supplement folic acid.

For pregnant women, it is better to consume supplement pills to ensure daily intake. An adult of 14 years and above should consume 400mcg of folic acid a day. Breastfeeding and pregnant women should ensure an intake of 500mcg and 600mcg accordingly. Women expecting pregnancy are also advised to consume pills as needed quality for consumption is 400 to 1000 mcg per day. 

Risks of Folic Acid Supplementation

A healthy person can take a maximum of 1000 mcg of folic acid per day. Above the suggested level may cause damage to the cell regeneration system. It is also recommended to test the B-12 level of the patient before starting the supplementation. If there is any emergency while consuming the supplement, you have to inform the health care provider regarding the same as folic acid may interact with other medications. 

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Other than a missed period and a pregnancy test, how far can you get before you realize you are pregnant? There are a few ways where early pregnancy can be detected, though the signs and time may actively differ for everyone. Your body goes through all kinds of changes after you conceive. And sometimes, you do not even realize it and miss all the symptoms. These symptoms include tender breasts, exhaustion, morning sickness, mood swings, and many more. 

Some women feel the difference a week or two after conception. Some others will only notice the symptoms four or five weeks into their pregnancy. And there are others who are unaware of the symptoms and only realize it far into their pregnancy. As I said, the symptoms occur differently in different pregnant women. So, while it may be common and mistaken for period symptoms, they are usually unrecognized as pregnancy features. Below are the symptoms that are most common to pregnant women. 


Pregnancy and tiredness go hand in hand. Your body will feel exhausted more often since you will be producing more blood to carry nutrients for the growing baby. It is not just a symptom of early pregnancy, fatigue may even stay for the duration of your pregnancy. Early Pregnancy Detection

Sore Breasts: 

Your breasts will feel more tender and sore as you get into pregnancy. It is a hard symptom to identify for some women as they experience sore breasts as part of their menstruation. Usually, the soreness gets worse with time as you move up in your pregnancy. Your breasts might even begin to change the way they look. 

Darkening Areolas: 

Areolas are the area surrounding the nipple. One or two weeks after conception, they tend to become a shade darker and larger. This is due to the hormonal change that affects skin pigmentation. The veins will also become prominent due to the increased blood supply to the breasts. 

Heightened Olfactory senses:

Most women note a heightened sense of smell right after they conceive. It is usually noticeable in the first trimester. Though it is not a confirmed symptom, the majority of pregnant women have experienced this condition. They become highly sensitive to smells as a sign of hormonal change. 

Reaction to Food and morning sickness: 

Hormones play another key role in your pregnancy cravings. They affect the way you react to different kinds of food. It can cause unusual food cravings, constant hunger, and aversions to some types of food, even causing nausea in a few. Morning sickness is usually the first symptom that many women notice in pregnancy. It stays until the first trimester, though for some it lasts during the entire pregnancy. 


The body produces an increased amount of progesterone and estrogen to support pregnancy. This relaxes the muscles and builds up gas in the body. This in turn leads to abdominal pain, bloating, belching, and flatulence. 

Mood Swings: 

This is a very common symptom in pregnancy, though it is common in other conditions too. Pregnant women feel their body change in a large multitude, which may even make them moody. If you have PMS, you will experience mood swings in an extreme ratio, you will be laughing one minute and crying the next. 


Since your body is preparing for a baby, your stomach starts to grow bit by bit. As it grows, so does your uterus. All this pulling and stretching may cause pain in your lower abdomen. These cramps feel similar to the ones you experience during menstruation. 

High Basal Temperature: 

Bas temperature refers to your waking temperature. It usually hikes during ovulation and gets down as you start your period. If you get pregnant, the temperature would not go

down. Basal body temperature staying high can be referred to as an early symptom of pregnancy. 

 Frequent urination: 

Your need to urinate doubles during pregnancy. This is caused by the hormonal and physical changes your body goes through, resulting in an increased amount of pee being let out. 

These are the ten most common symptoms you would notice early into your pregnancy. A lot of these symptoms are so common that you mistake them for period symptoms or just plain tiredness. You do not realize your body is undergoing a series of changes via hormones. While for some, it is plainly visible in the first week or two, others take four to five weeks to at least suspect pregnancy. This is because pregnancy treats every woman differently. Some have it easy, while others struggle until the final month. 

Now a missed period almost confirms pregnancy, unlike the above symptoms. However, the only real way to know for sure is to take a pregnancy test. Consult a doctor if you want it confirmed and have a healthy pregnancy period.

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Ectopic pregnancy is not very common. One percent of pregnancies can be ectopic in the US. A pregnancy is considered to be ectopic when a fertilized egg implants in fallopian tubes or any other related regions instead of the uterus. Ectopic pregnancy is a serious health condition as it risks the mother’s life. There should be emergency medical treatment and follow-up for the welfare of the mother. In normal cases, the fertilized egg started growing and developing an ion wall or lining of the uterus. In Ectopic pregnancy, the same will grow outside the uterus which is not elastic like the uterus. Ectopic pregnancy may occur in the fallopian tubes, ovary, abdominal cavity, or cervix. The fallopian tube is the common destination of ectopic pregnancy and which is called a tube-pregnancy.

Is ectopic pregnancy a serious condition?

An ectopic pregnancy can’t survive anyway. It will become complicated if not addressed medically and intervened on time. The growing egg may cause bleeding which can be life-threatening if not treated. Doctors consider ectopic pregnancy a medical emergency. The uterus is an organ that can have elastic properties. Any other organs cannot hold the baby and they may burst while the tissue is growing. Ectopic pregnancy should be diagnosed within the first few weeks of pregnancy, or it will go life-threatening. 

Risk factors to be considered

Even though we cannot clearly define the causes and possibilities for having an ectopic pregnancy, there are a few risk factors that may lead to it. It will be good to have diagnostic tests if you fall under the following categories.

  • Smoking.
  • History of ectopic pregnancy. 
  • Past diagnosis of pelvic inflammatory disease
  • Surgery on a pelvic area, especially on fallopian tubes. 
  • Treatment for infertility. 
  • Sexually transmitted infections that are untreated. 
  • Birth control measures such as IUDs and contraceptives. 
  • Age above 35.

What are the common symptoms of ectopic pregnancy?

Early signs of pregnancy such as missed periods and morning sickness, and nausea will be there for ectopic pregnancy too. It will show positive when you take pregnancy tests. Usually, the symptoms will get severe when the fertilized egg started growing. Vaginal bleeding, pelvic pain, shoulder pain, frequent urination, and bowel discomfort, fainting, low blood pressure, are considered emergency symptoms that need medical intervention. 

Diagnosing ectopic pregnancy

If your healthcare providers found the given symptoms, they may conduct a diagnosis to ensure the ectopic pregnancy. A urine test or blood test will be consisted to confirm pregnancy. An imaging test or ultrasound exam is the usual method to confirm the position of the fetus and confirm an ectopic pregnancy. Ectopic pregnancy can be discovered during the first weeks of the pregnancy itself. Usually, it is discovered in the first trimester. 

Preventing ectopic pregnancy 

Ectopic pregnancy can occur naturally and genetically and can be age-related. Certain risk factors may also cause ectopic pregnancy. Here are a few tips that can be followed to prevent ectopic pregnancy

Stay away from sexually transmitted infections

Sexually transmitted infections like gonorrhea, human papillomavirus, chlamydia, and genital herpes may cause ectopic pregnancy as they restrict the movement of the fallopian tube. It is suggested to reduce the risk of STIs to prevent an ectopic pregnancy. Being sexually hygienic is very important. Usage of condoms during sex, and limiting the number of sexual partners can also reduce the risk of STIs. 

Early diagnosis if you have a history

It is mandatory to monitor the symptoms and have proper checkups if you have a history of ectopic pregnancy. Studies suggested that a person with ectopic pregnancy is likely to repeat the same. Early detection can prevent complications and health problems. It is just a possibility and there is no need to lose hope. In most cases, it is normal. 

Smoking is considered to be an important factor that causes ectopic pregnancy. It is suggested to quit smoking before you think about pregnancy. At least go for reducing the number. 

Is it possible to continue ectopic pregnancy?

There are no possibilities for continuing the ectopic pregnancy as it is mortal for the fetus. The fetus cannot grow outside the uterus. It will become fatal for the mother if left untreated. The organ to which the fertilized egg is attached may burst and cause internal bleeding. It is life-threatening for the mother. 

Treating ectopic pregnancy 

Treatment for ectopic pregnancy determines based on the size and position of the growth. It is common to use methotrexate medicine to stop the growth of the fertilized egg. Methotrexate is usually given as an injection. Surgery will be recommended according to the top of the condition of the fallopian tube. If the tube bursts or cracks, it needs surgery. The surgery is an emergency as it is life-saving. It is possible to be done through laparoscopy. 


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Are you concerned about sperm count and sperm health? Do you believe that it is going to be a barrier to getting pregnant? If you are trying for pregnancy for the long term you might have come across the word sperm health and you will be wondering what to do to improvisation of sperm health. Male fertility is directly related to sperm health as well as sperm count.

Why Is Sperm Health Important?

Sperm health is a wide term that includes sperm count, quality, structure, and movement. According to health experts, a healthy man should produce almost 100 million sperm in a single ejaculation. A milliliter sperm must contain 15 million sperm. Even though only one single sperm can make the egg fertilized, there should be enough quantity of sperm to avoid missing a chance and getting pregnant. The healthy sperm is having oval-shaped head and long tail. The shape plays a vital role in movement and penetration. The sperm must pass through the cervix, uterus, and fallopian tubes for fertilization. The mobility of sperm determines pregnancy. 

Health Disorders And Male Fertility

There are many health problems that can have a negative impact on male fertility. Any disorder or infection related to the hypothalamus or the pituitary gland may reduce the fertility rate as it affects the production of testosterone and sperm. Genetic disorders and sperm transport disorders can also result in the same. Age can also be a barrier. Studies have proven that the fertility rate is comparatively lesser in males after their 50s. 

Diet And Sperm Health

It is necessary to include antioxidant-rich food items in the diet to improve sperm health. Folic acids are rich in antioxidants and they help to improve sperm count. Including beef liver, leafy vegetables, beans, peas, and fortified grains will be helpful. Lycopene is a carotenoid that is rich in antioxidants. Tomatoes, apricot, pink grapefruit, and watermelons can supplement Lycopene. Selenium is a naturally occurring chemical that is found in selenoproteins and enzymes. As Selenium boosts anti-oxidation, it is suggested to consume Brazil nuts, cod, beef, turkey, and chicken to boost sperm count. Vitamin C is essential for sperm count and sperm mobility. Kiwi, oranges, grapefruit, and red peppers supplement Vitamin C. Eating vitamin E-rich food items will also improve sperm mobility. Nuts, seeds, oils, and leafy greens are considered the best. People with zinc deficiency have problems with the quality and quality of sperm. Consuming zinc-rich food items like Oysters, crab, red meat, poultry, and beans can improve sperm count. 

How To Improve Sperm Health And Fertility?

Here are a few habits that can be followed to improve sperm health and fertility.

  • Sperm health and body weight is interrelated. It is necessary to maintain healthy body weight for sperm health and fertility. A person with an ideal BMI tends to have a healthy sperm count and sperm movement. 
  • You should eat healthily. Avoid junk food and refer to antioxidants-rich fruits and vegetables for sperm health. Bottled or packed food items may contain a preservative that spoils your sperm health. 
  • Relax and manage a stress-free life. Stress and anxiety are considered to be great barriers to fertility. 
  •  It is very important to be sexually hygienic to make pregnancy possible and lack of hygiene may result in various Sexually Transmitted Diseases that cause infertility. 
  • Regular exercise will energize your anti-oxidant enzymes and they make a protective mechanism for sperm. 
  • If you are expecting pregnancy, you can’t be nervous about having sex. Frequent sex eases fertility. 
  • A medical condition that prevents pregnancy should be treated before you try for pregnancy.


Don’ts To Improve Sperm Health And Fertility

Here are a few things that you should not do while considering pregnancy. The following habits may have negative impacts on your sperm health and fertility. 

  • Avoid smoking. Smoking may negatively affect hormone production, sperm count, and sperm quality.  It is suggested to quit smoking if you are planning a pregnancy. 
  • Excess alcohol consumption reduces sperm production and causes testosterone imbalance. Moderate drinking is not going to affect you. A few times a week can be accepted. 
  • Excess heat can restrict sperm production as well as movement. Occupational circumstances with excess health must be avoided if you planned to have a baby. 
  • It is recommended to avoid hot baths and hot tubs as they may increase the temperature of the scrotum and can have a negative impact on sperm production.
  • Keeping laptops on your lap can also make raise the temperature of the scrotum. Better choose a table to keep them on. 
  • Everyday exposure to toxic chemicals can be harmful to sperm health. If you are continuously failing to be conceived, think about your occupation. Having constant exposure to toxic chemicals such as paints and varnished can cause negative effects.
  • Studies have proved that painters, metal workers, and farmers who are dealing with pesticides are reported with poor sperm health. 
  • Avoid wearing tight undergarments as it compresses the scrotum and restricts sperm production.  

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A healthy sperm determines a healthy baby. If you and your partner are facing trouble with conceiving, know that it isn’t just you. There are plenty of couples out there dreadfully facing infertility. It is always best to know what infertility means and how to counteract it in order to form a healthy sperm. Healthy sperm is not a given. You will have to work for it and follow certain guidelines, in one word, be healthy. 

How do you know if your sperm health is in fact healthy? How do you assess them? What causes male infertility? What should you and should not do? This article will lead you through all of these queries so that you understand and work it out. 

When you look at a healthy sperm condition, there are always 3 things you measure first your sperm count, sperm motility, and its shape. 

Sperm count refers to the number of spermatozoa per ejaculation, which is the foremost concern of male infertility. A normal or good sperm count ranges between 15 million to more than 200 million sperm per milliliter of semen. You need to have a large amount of sperm to increase the probability of fertilization with the egg of the female. 

Sperm motility refers to the movement of sperm through the female body. A normal sperm motile count is over 20 million. Your sperm needs to move forward with agility to find the egg and impregnate the female. 

Sperm Morphology refers to the size and shape of the sperm. It is another important factor in determining the status of male fertility. Normally, 4-10% is visible under a microscope. Your sperm has to be normally shaped in order to access better sperm health. 

What causes male fertility problems? 

Three things that you have to be concerned with regarding sperm health are sperm count, motility, and morphology. Anything affecting these three factors results in a low fertility ratio. This accounts for a low sperm count that may go below the normal range of 15 million per milliliter of semen. A less number of sperm reduces the chance of fertilization with the female egg. The same goes for the unfunctional or abnormal movement of the sperm, which may find it difficult to reach or penetrate the egg. Other medical conditions that may affect male fertility problems are testicular disease and sperm transport

disorders. It can also be caused by slight damage in the hypothalamus or pituitary gland. 

What’s the best way to produce healthy sperm? 

Though infertility is a very common occurrence, it can be prevented by a series of methods. There are even specified kinds of food that best produce healthy sperm like vegetables, fruits, fish, and walnut. I have gathered a few here so that you may get to know better about producing healthier sperm. 

  • Eat a healthy diet consisting of fruits and vegetables rich in antioxidants
  • For protein content, try eating fish instead of processed meat 
  • Include walnuts into your diet 
  • Go for a healthy weight and manage your BMI accordingly 
  • Avoid extracting sexually transmitted diseases by limiting the number of sexual partners 
  • Manage stress and try to bring down anxiety levels 
  • Performing certain physical activities can help stimulate powerful antioxidant enzymes 

While there are things you should do and food you must have to produce better sperm health, there are also certain things to avoid for the same reason. Here are a few important ones that can considerably reduce your sperm count and hence your chances of getting pregnant: 

  • Using cigarettes and smoking in general 
  • Increased alcohol intake 
  • Using lubricants during sex 
  • Inclusion of processed meat in your diet 
  • Having food items with trans fat and soy content 
  • High-fat dairy products are also found to decrease sperm count 
  • Being unprotected from toxins and harmful chemicals 
  • Exposing the scrotum to warm objects 
  • Frequently visiting saunas and hot tubs 


Sperm health is concerned with a lot of factors that may or may not adversely affect male fertility. When a couple is taking the next step forward to form a family, a vital understanding and knowledge are required about sperm health. This article talks about what sperm health means and how it is related to male infertility. It also gives an in-depth understanding of dealing with the right methods that can help produce healthy sperm. It ranges from a healthy diet consisting of vegetables, fruits, fish, and walnuts to exercise and stress-release requirements. There are also certain food items and habits to avoid so as to prevent sperm count reduction. 

Educate yourself about sperm health and infertility so that you can feel carefree when the time comes to take your relationship to the next step. Remember, a healthy sperm means a healthy baby.

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