Male infertility has been on the rise ever since the beginning of the modern era when men became prone to lifestyle modifications and got addicted to alcoholism. A study conducted by a scientific body in the US revealed that at least 30% of infertility cases are now related to male-factor infertility.
In this article, you will learn more about the male infertility tests that are currently available to check out the fertility status. It will help you understand why and when you should do these tests. So keep on reading till the end.
Types of Male Infertility Testing
We will talk in this section about the various types of male infertility tests that are available to know your fertility status. These tests are the most common ones that will give accurate results. You will find more on this in the incoming sections that will help you get a clear understanding.
Semen Analysis is classified into four specific tests which have to be done separately to get conclusive results. The details of each of the individual tests are given below. Please refer to the content for more information.
- Sperm concentration- Sperm Concentration is a standard test that measures how many sperms are present per milliliter of semen. According to the guidelines of The World Health Organization (WHO), at least 15 million sperm per mL is required to cite a sperm concentration as healthy. The higher the sperm count, the more the chances for pregnancy of your female partner.
- Sperm motility- Sperm motility is basically the movement of sperms and it is important in which direction they move. Normally, the sperm is propelled forward by the flagellations of the tail. The right movement implies their success rate of whether they make it to the egg and penetrate it. The ideal movement is moving in straight lines or in sweeping circles.
- Sperm morphology- Sperm morphology has to do with the sperm’s anatomy and its shape and form. In ideal conditions, a sperm should have a head with a nucleus or the genetic material for the potential offspring. A midpiece that has the mitochondria to regulate and power the movements. Last but not least, a tail which helps to direct their movement. Any deformities in this will result in the general failure of the sperm to reach the egg.
- Semen factors- Semen volume is the amount of fluid that is ejaculated and a volume that is less than 1.5 mL as per WHO guidelines does not have much impact. However, it does indicate the possibility of blockage that can exist in one or more glands of the reproductive system. Another factor that seems to play is the PH level of the semen. Any irregularities or inconsistencies in the PH value or the semen composition could be due to a more serious problem with the testicles.
DNA Fragmentation Test
The sperm carries DNA material that is essential for the sperm to fertilize the egg and create a fully developed embryo cell. Due to many reasons, the DNA quality can be affected and if it is so it would not be able to discharge its duty and create a healthy baby. This problem is known as DNA fragmentation and is the most common cause of lower pregnancy rates and higher rates of abnormal embryos. Currently, there are many tests available for DNA fragmentation such as the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA), Deoxynucleotidyl Transferase-Mediated dUTP Nick End Labeling Assay (TUNEL), Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis Assay (COMET), Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test (SCD), etc.
Antisperm Antibody Test
In rare cases, male fertility can be harmed by antibodies produced by the immune system. These antibodies are proteins that are found in the semen and are generated due to certain traumas undergone by the reproductive system such as testicular torsion or vasectomy. The Doctors do not prescribe ASA tests normally as the condition is quite rare as said earlier. However, if they find the sperm concentration is normal and the motility rate is higher they can very well prescribe the test.
Male Fertility: Why And When To Get Tested?
If a couple is unable to conceive a baby and they feel there is a problem it is better for both partners to get tested. As discussed in the preceding section, there are many male infertility tests available that can give instant results. Most of the time, men can improve their fertility by bringing on certain lifestyle changes. Hence, testing the male partner’s fertility earlier on and finding ways to improve it can save a lot of time and money.
How To Improve Male Fertility?
Male fertility can be affected by a lot of factors such as individual lifestyles and personal habits. Sperms are created every day and their health is correlated to the individual’s diet, and daily activities. Alcoholism, smoking, and drug addiction can cause adverse damage to the sperm and cause repercussions in the biological aspects of the male body. Therefore, quitting unhealthy practices and reviving the daily routine can improve sperm count and retain a healthy life.
In this review, we have had a detailed discussion on male infertility testing and the types of testing that are currently available. We also discussed the need to go for the earlier tests and how it will help to resolve the matter. There have been a lot of improvements in the field of male infertility testing lately. Today, medical science has been equipped with the specific knowledge and methods that can help men retain their fertility and get relief.