Infertility Factors In Women And Men: Exploring The Causes And Treatments!

Male And Female Factor Infertility Exploring The Causes And Treatments

You must have heard of people being infertile. Has it ever concerned you to think why a group of individuals are infertile? What makes them infertile? Could it be their genetics or their lifestyle? Or could it be caused by any unexplained reasons? The accurate reason behind the condition cannot be predicted without the affected person undergoing a proper examination. Once the causing factor is identified, it is easy to treat the condition. But before going to the causes and treatment options available for infertility in men and women, it is important to attain better knowledge about the condition. 

Infertility In Women And Men – Causes, Symptoms, And Treatment Options Explained!

Infertility is a common condition that affects the reproductive systems of both men and women. The inability of women to conceive or the inability of a man to impregnate a woman is often considered to be infertility. Like the difference in definition, the causes are also different in both genders and so are the treatment options. 

Infertility In Women

Infertility in women is often described as not being able to get pregnant after more than 1 year of unprotected sex. It can affect anyone who has lowered reproductive hormone levels in their body. It is also diagnosed in women with broken or damaged fallopian tubes, or thickened endometriosis. Some women lack menstruation, which indicates that they are also incapable of conceiving until they reach their menarche. 

Male And Female Factor Infertility


Pregnancy is less likely to occur if the egg released is not healthy enough to fertilize with the sperm. If you are consulting an infertility expert, they might recognize the condition after 1 year or more of trying to conceive. This means you are supposed to engage in unprotected sex regularly for the prescribed period. In case you are older than 35, you might not be asked to do this for a year instead, they will ask you to follow the instructions for at least 6 months. 

Infertility In Men 

Infertility in men is defined as the inability of a man to impregnate a woman. Although low sperm count is said to be the common cause of infertility in men, there is an array of other factors that may lead to the condition. In the United States, 1 in 5 men is diagnosed with infertility. To the worst, it affects the relationship quality with your partner, eventually dragging you into other adverse conditions such as depression, and lowered self-esteem. 

What Are The Causes Of Infertility? 

Mostly, infertile couples have more than 1 factor that contributes to their condition. But sometimes, there will not be an easily detectable answer as to why you turned out to be infertile, because, often individuals with infertility do not lack a uterus or ovaries. They might not be born without testicles or a penis and this indicates that only a healthcare provider can determine why a person is infertile. 

However, the common causes are listed below: 

  • As you grow old, chances are that you will not be able to conceive, or you will lack the ability to impregnate a women 
  • Wrong eating habits 
  • Over-exercising 
  • Sexually transmitted infections 
  • Chemotherapy
  • Obesity 
  • Excessive alcohol consumption 
  • Abnormalities in the hormone levels 
  • Chronic conditions 

Although these are a few general causes of infertility, there is a plethora of specific infertility causes for both genders and they are as follows: 

Infertility Causes In Women 

Women or people with a pair of ovaries are often diagnosed with ovulation disorders that prevent them from releasing healthy eggs and abstaining from meeting sperm for fertilization. Nevertheless, the following are the factors that lead the way to infertility in women

  • Endometriosis- It is a rare condition in which a lining similar to that of inside the uterus is grown outside them. Endometriosis is often coupled with severe pain in the pelvis region and it usually lasts until menopause. 
  • Damaged fallopian tube 
  • Structural abnormalities of the uterus 
  • Pituitary gland disorders 
  • Uterine polyps
  • Chromosomal disorders
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Congenital absence of ovaries 
  • Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome 
  • Thyroid disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Autoimmune disorders like lupus or celiac disease
  • Sickle cell anemia 
  • Poor egg quality 

Infertility Causes In Men 

Infertility in men is usually the result of abnormal testosterone levels or lowered sperm count. However, there are also other causes and they are as follows: 

  • Genetic disorders
  • Injury caused on the scrotum, the sac-like structure that holds your testicles 
  • Overexposure to heat 
  • Enlarged veins in your testicles 
  • Sexual dysfunction 
  • Retrograde ejaculation or premature ejaculation 
  • Chromosomal disorder 
  • Radiation therapy 

Male And Female Infertility Causes And Treatments

Infertility Treatment Options Available For Women 

It is important to immediately treat the condition if diagnosed because, as you age, it is less likely for infertility treatment to work on you. Now, let’s look at the available treatment options for women:

  • Lifestyle Modifications 

Lifestyle modification indicates the incorporation of various important habits such as following a healthy diet, regular exercise, regular health checks, and controlling or stopping alcohol consumption and smoking. These habits are meant to improve your overall health. 

  • Medications

In some women, medications including the correct dose of metformin, gonadotropin, clomifene, tamoxifen, and metformin bring the desired output. This is because all the aforementioned medicines aid in ovulation. Also, medications are the easiest method to treat any kind of ailment and infertility is nothing different. 

  • Surgical Interventions 

Surgical interventions are recommended when your infertility is caused by a block or scarred tissue in the fallopian tube, These surgeries have the potential to remove any barrier in the pathway of the eggs. Surgeries are also frequently recommended for women who are diagnosed with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome. Examples of infertility surgeries are fallopian tube surgery and laparoscopic surgery. 

Infertility Treatment Options Available For Men 

Treatment options available for men are as follows: 

  • Lifestyle Modifications

Starting a diet that included the necessary nutrients to improve your testosterone levels and overall health will bring a major difference in your reproductive health as well. 

  •  Medications 

Medications often focus on improving the levels of testosterone and other hormones. There are a few drugs that help with erectile dysfunction. 

  • Surgical Interventions

In men, surgical interventions are recommended when a blockage in the sperm-carrying tubes is identified. Moreover, surgeries like varicocele surgery can even make your sperm healthier than before. 

Common Solutions 

  1. In Vitro Fertilization: IVF includes the process of collecting egg and sperm in a lab tube for fertilization. The fertilized egg is then returned to the woman’s uterus for further development. 
  2. Intrauterine Insemination: IUI involves placing sperm into a woman’s uterus through her vagina using a long tube. 
  3. Assisted Hatching: It involves opening the outer layer of the embryo to help it implant in the uterus. 
  4. Third-party ART: It includes the presence of donor sperms, donor eggs, or even, donor embryos. 


Being fertile is one of the major physical qualities of both men and women and ensuring reproductive health is therefore necessary. Earlier the diagnosis, effective the treatment. Also, you cannot expect similar results for everyone.

A group of people being fertile after taking fertility medications doesn’t indicate that anyone can be fertile with the help of medicines alone. The effectiveness of each treatment option depends on the intensity of the condition and the medical history of a person. Therefore, make sure to consult a fertility expert to receive personalized care. 

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