Infertility is the term used to describe the situation where a couple has regular, unprotected sexual relations yet is unable to conceive. Although some couples conceive in a short span of time it takes longer for some other couples.
Consult with a physician, if you are experiencing problems with conceiving even after trying for a year. They can offer ample suggestions for possible treatments and enquire about the real causes of infertility problems. When to consult the physician:
- Upon entering your mid-30s, the reduction in fertility accelerates if you are a female over the age of 36.
- Any further cause for concern regarding your ability to conceive, such as having had cancer treatment or suspecting that you may have contracted a sexually transmitted infection (STI).
Typical Reasons For Infertility
Infertility may be due to many reasons. It depends from individual to individual. These are a few reasons for fertility:
- Irregularities in the periodic release of eggs during ovulation
- Obstructed or damaged fallopian tubes
- Low-quality semen
- Endometriosis is a disorder in which tissue that resembles the endometrium, the lining of the womb, develops outside of the womb.
Factors Affecting Fertility
- Age: People become less fertile as they become older
- Weight: Overweight affects fertility
- Sexually Transmitted Infections: There are a number of STIs that might impact fertility, including chlamydia.
- Smoking Impact on Fertility: Smoking lowers the quality of semen and can have an impact on your ability to conceive
- Stress: In severe circumstances, stress can also influence ovulation and sperm production. Stress can also negatively impact your connection with your spouse and lead you to lose your sex drive.
Two-Types of Infertility
- Primary Infertility – When it is difficult for someone who has never conceived to become pregnant
- Secondary Infertility – When a person has previously given birth to one or more children but is having trouble getting pregnant again.
Treatment for fertility consists of
- Medical care for irregular menstruation
- Surgical operations, including endometriosis therapy, fallopian tube repair, or adhesion removal from the womb or abdominal cavity
- Assisted reproduction techniques like IVF or intrauterine insemination (IUI)
Typical fertility medications consist of:
- Clomiphene: Medicine that helps women who either can’t ovulate at all or ovulate infrequently release an egg each month
- Tamoxifen: A clomiphene substitute if you experience issues with ovulation
- Metformin: It is very helpful for women with PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome)
- Gonadotropins: They may increase male fertility and aid in the stimulation of ovulation in women.
Investigation of fertility issues and assistance with fertility can be achieved through a variety of surgical techniques
Endometriosis, Fibroids and PCOS
- Endometriosis is a condition in which tissue that mimics uterine lining develops outside of the womb
- Endometriosis is frequently treated using laparoscopic surgery, which involves the removal of destruction of fluid-filled sacs known as cysts.
- It can also be used to remove submucosal fibroids, which are tiny growths in the womb
- If ovulation medication has failed and you have polycystic ovary syndrome
- This comprises using heat or a laser to sterilize a part of the ovary
Fallopian Tube Surgery
- Your fallopian tubes might need to be surgically repaired if they are scarred or obstructed
- In order to facilitate the passage of eggs via your fallopian tubes, scar tissues might be surgically broken up
- The degree of damage to your fallopian tubes will determine how well the surgery goes
- An ectopic pregnancy is one of the possible risks associated with tubal surgery, which occurs when a fertilized egg implants outside the womb.
Correcting An Epididymis Blockage and Surgery To Retrieve Sperm
A structure in the testicles that resembles a coil that aids in storing and moving sperm is called the epididymis. A blockage of the epididymis can occasionally occur, inhibiting normal sperm ejaculation. In the event that this is contributing to infertility, the obstruction can be removed surgically.
Sperm extraction through surgery could be a possibility if you:
- Possess a blockage that inhibits sperm release or were born lacking the vas deferens, the tube that collects and drains sperm from testicles
- Having had a vasectomy or a botched vasectomy reversal
- Surgical extractions are often done under local anesthesia, but they can also be done under general anesthesia, depending on the type of operation you need. It is often done as an outpatient procedure
- You will be given an update on the tissue or sperm quality that same day
- Sperm that won’t be needed right away will be frozen and kept in storage.
- In Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)
IVF refers to the procedure of fertilizing an egg outside of the body. The ovaries are given reproductive medicines to urge them to generate more eggs than usual. After being taken from the ovaries, the eggs are fertilized in a lab with sperm. After fertilization, an embryo (egg) is returned to the uterus to develop further.
- Intrauterine Insemination (IUI)
Artificial insemination, or intrauterine insemination, is the process of introducing sperm into the womb through the cervix using a thin plastic tube. The first step is to collect and wash sperm in liquid. The finest specimens, or those that move the fastest, are chosen.
- Egg and Sperm Donation
You could be eligible to receive sperm or eggs from a donor to aid in conception if you or your spouse is experiencing infertility issues. IVF is typically used for treatments involving donated eggs. When the kid becomes an adult (at age 18), they have the legal right to know who the donor is if they were conceived with donated eggs or sperm.
It is ideal to schedule an appointment as soon as possible because fertility testing can take some time, and female fertility declines with age. Your general practitioner (GP) can perform a preliminary evaluation to identify potential causes of your infertility issues and provide you with advice on the next steps.
Since reproductive issues can impact one or both spouses, it is usually preferable for both parties to see a general practitioner. As trying to conceive may be an emotional experience, it is critical that you support one another to the greatest extent you can. One element that may impact fertility is stress.